Penelitian Noni Tahun 2006 hingga Sekarang

International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 57(7):556-558, 2006.
Mineral variability among 177 commercial noni juices.
Brett J West, Charles B Tolson, Randy G Vest, Summer Jensen, Travis G Lundell.

The industry-wide mineral profile of commercial noni juices was determined by analyses of 177 competing brands by Tahitian Noni International laboratories. A large degree of variability was found in the concentrations of nine minerals, revealing that not all noni juices are the same. Many brands of noni juice have a different nutrient profile than that published by the European Union for TAHITIAN NONI® Juice. While potassium was found to be the most prominent mineral, its concentration in most commercial brands is of minor nutritional significance, contrary to claims made in some previous publications that were based only on the analysis of one minor brand name. (view original abstract at

Journal of Food Science, Vol. 71(8):R100-106, 2006.
A safety review of noni fruit juice.
B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf, L. D. White

A literature review and data from news studies are presented to describe the safety of noni fruit juice. Several preclinical safety tests and human clinical studies have revealed no adverse health effects, even at very high doses. The data from these studies support the continued use of noni juice as a safe healthy food. (original article available at )

World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 12(22) pp. 3616-3619. June 2006
Noni juice is not hepatotoxic.
B. J. West, C. J. Jensen, J. Westendorf

Noni juice has been approved as a safe food within the European Union. A few cases reports suggesting a role of noni juicein acute hepatitis, due to anthraquinones, is not supported by chemical analyses, several preclinical safety studies, and a clinical human safety study in 96 volunteers. Liver function tests in these studies revealed no adverse liver effects, even at very high doses. Anthraquinones in noni fruit are of the wrong type and occur in quantities too small to cause any negative liver effects. A large amount of data reveal that noni juice is not hepatotoxic. (original article available at )

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Evaluation of the allergenic potential of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf proteins, AGFD 158.
Brett J West and Afa Palu.

Analysis of proteins from noni leaves reveals that they are easily digested by pepsin, a digestive enzyme in the stomach that breaks down proteins. A characteristic of non-allergen food proteins is that they are readily digested by pepsin. This provides further evidence for the safe use of noni leaves as food. (view original abstract at

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Noni contains competitive ligand(s) binding to GABAa agonist receptors as an anxiolytic.
Shixin Deng, Afa K Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae C. Jensen, Brett J West. AGFD 67.

For the first time, the biological mechanism of noni fruit’s effect to help relieve stress and anxiety (anxiolytic), calm and relax, improve mood and sense of well being is reported. Noni fruit extracts effectively bind to gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAa) receptors. These are inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors found in the brain. Such binding activity is well known to produce sedative and anxiolytic effects. (view original abstract at

The 232nd American Chemical Society National Meeting, San Francisco, CA. September 10-14, 2006.
Morinda citrifolia L. Noni: An angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. AGFD 130.
Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Shixin Deng, Brett J. West

The possible biological mechanism by which noni juice may help control blood pressure is reported. In vitro (meaning in test tube conditions) tests found that increasing concentrations of noni juice resulting in more inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and more blocking of angiotensin (AT) receptors. Both ACE and AT receptors are involved in raising blood pressure, and inhibiting their activity may result in the lower of high blood pressure. (view original abstract at

The 47th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy. August 5-9, 2006. Arlington, Virginia.
Constituents of the fruit of noni and their Selective inhibitory effects of cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme.
Shixin Deng, Afa Palu, Bing-nan Zhou, Chen Su, Jarakae Jensen, Brett West

Several phytochemicals have been isolated from noni fruit which selectively inhibit COX-2 in vitro, indicating potential anti-inflammatory activity. Of these phytochemicals, two novel compounds (not known to exist anywhere previously) have been discovered. (view original abstract at

IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 12.
The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts.
Afa K. Palu, Chen Su, Bing-Nan Zhou, Brett West, Shixin Deng, Jarakae Jensen

Noni fruit juice has in vitro inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterase enzyme 3 (PDE-3), DPP-IV and aldose reductase enzymes. Noni juice is also an in vitro agonist of P2Y receptors, and is an in vitro PTP1B receptor antagonist. All these effects indicate the possibility of noni juice to help utilize fat and sugar stores more efficiently, as well as limit free radical production associated with exercise fatigue. This data suggests drinking noni juice may improve overall energy, shorten excerise recovery time, and help maintain appropriate blood glucose levels.

IVth International Conference on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants from French Overseas Regions. Tahiti. July 10-13, 2006. p. 28.
The inhibitory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. noni on phosphodiesterase enzymes: The possible mechanisms for increasing energy and improving diabetic conditions. CIPAM 2006 Abstracts.
Chen Su, Brett J West, Afa K. Palu, Bing-Nan Zhou, Jarakae Jensen, John Fritz, Anne Hirazumi-Kim

Noni-ppt, the ethanol insoluble precipitate from noni juice, was found to have anti-metastatic activity in mice. The anti-metastatic substance in noni-ppt was purified and found to inhibit the adhesion of tumor cells to tissues. This potentially explains at least one mechanism by which noni juice prevents tumor development in mice.

The 47th Annual Meeting of Society for Economic Botany, Folk Botanical Wisdom; Towards Global Markets. June 5-9, 2006. Final Program, page 71
Morinda citrifolia L. Noni has cholesterol lowering potential
Afa Kehaati Palu, Brett Justin West, Jarakae Jensen, Bing-nan Zhou.

Noni fruit juice was found to inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase in vitro. This enzyme is involved in the synthesis of cholesterol in humans. The observed inhibitory action may explain, in part, the mechanism behind the cholesterol lowering effect observed in a human clinical trial. (view the original abstract at

46th Annual Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiology and Prevention in Association with the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. American Heart Association. Pheonix, Arizona. March 2-5, 2006.
The effects of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit juice on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in current smokers.
Mian-ying Wang, Eric Henley, Jeanette Nolting, Alexandra Cheerva, Jarakae Jensen, Gary Anderson, Diane Nowicki, Stephen Story.

A double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in current heavy smokers revealed that drinking one to four ounces of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice (TNJ) for one month had a beneficial effect on blood lipids. These results indicate, for the first time, that TNJ is able to lower total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in current smokers. (view the meeting report at

Eur J Gastroenterology & Hepatology (2006), 18:575-577
Noni juice protects the liver
Claude J. Jensen, Johannes Westendorf, Mian-Ying Wang, David P. Wadsworth

This was a published correspondence to the journal editor refuting one of their recent published articles by Millonig et al. alleging acute hepatitis from a patient’s consumption of noni juice. Jensen et al. pointed out that there is substantial published data which shows that noni juice actually protects the liver from damage by liver toxic substances. Further, the authors discuss several problems with the article by the Millonig group: 1) no re-exposure test was conducted to confirm the observed toxicity results, 2) the article incorrectly cited support for the patient’s elevated liver enzymes from an earlier published article, which in fact contains research that shows pre-exposure to noni fruit juice protects the liver of experimental rats, 3) the Millonig group postulated that anthraquinones in the juice may have produced the liver toxicity. However, published reports confirm that anthraquinones are not present in the juice. Also, the absence of anthraquinones in Tahitian Noni® Juice was a prerequisite for the European Union’s 2003 approval of noni as a novel food, 4) the Austrian Agency for Health and Nutrition Safety conducted an independent analysis of Tahitian Noni® Juice with the conclusion, “the above described product has no toxic effects on the liver”, and 5) a trial was conducted with 96 human volunteers who consumed up to 750 ml of Tahitian Noni Juice per day for 6 weeks. Blood chemistry analyses, including liver enzymes, showed no abnormalities. In the reply by Millonig to this article, she admits that no proof of causality could be established.

International Congress and 54th Annual Meeting of the Society for Medicinal Plant Research, Helsinki, Finland, Aug. 29–Sep. 2, 2006
Phytoestrogenic Activity of Morinda citrifolia L. Fruits
Simla Basar, Hassan Iznaguen, Andre Zeglin, Johannes Westendorf

Following a brief presentation of the growing and traditional health-benefits usages of Morinda citrifolia, the authors focused on the estrogenic effects found in Noni fruit puree. They found that a hexane extract of the puree produced a dose-dependent replacement of the natural hormone estradiol from its receptor. The compound responsible for this estrogenic activity was called CPx. Spectral analyses confirming its presence included UV, 1H NMR, and 13C-Pendant NMR.

J Vet Intern Med 2006. 20(3):756; Abstract #165
Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials™: A Novel Anti-inflammatory and a COX-2 Inhibitor Which Regulates LPS-induced Inflammatory Mediator Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes
J. Xu, A. C. McSloy, B. K. Anderson, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien

Given the broad range of therapeutic effects attributed to noni (Morinda citrifolia), the authors tested their hypothesis that Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® would modulate endotoxin (microbial toxin that can cause inflammation) inflammatory responses in equine foal monocytes (young blood cells) by regulating COX-2 expression (an enzyme involved in inflammation). The test foals were fed orally 60 ml of Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials®, twice daily for 60 days. Blood samples were taken at days 10 and 60, from which the peripheral monocytes were isolated and separated into test and control groups. The test group was then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 2 hrs. The treated foals showed a dramatic fold reduction in COX-2, TNF-ά (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6 (interleukins, protein mediators between white blood cells) mRNA (messenger RNA), compared to the untreated controls. A similar, but less dramatic, reduction was observed at 60 days. These results indicate that foals receiving the Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® may experience promising anti-inflammatory therapy.

3rd European Workshop on Equine Nutrition: Nutrition and Feeding of the Broodmare; Campobasso, Molise Univ., Italy; Jun 20-22, 2006
Tahitian Noni® Equine Essentials® Regulates LPS-Induced COX-2 and Cytokine Expression in Equine Neonatal Monocytes: A Preliminary Study
J. Xu, J. Cai, R. G. Godbee, S. F. Peek, B. J. Darien

This study was to investigate the effects of TAHITIAN NONI Equine Essentials on endotoxin-induced COX-2 and cytokine expression in the monocytes of equine foals at ages 0,10, and 60 days. Compared to the controls, the results showed that LPS-stimulated monocytes from the treated foals had reduced levesl of COX-2, TNF-ά (tumor necrosis factor), ILs-1β, -8, and -6.

Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2007 Dec;99(12):737-738.
Tahitian Noni(R) juice is not hepatotoxic.
West BJ, Berrio LF.

Toxicology and human clinical safety tests have led to EU approval of TAHITIAN NONI® Juice as a safe food. The conclusion of safety cannot be applied to non-EU approved juices, whose composition and identity are unknown.


J Sci Food Agri. 2007 November; 87(14): 2583-2588.
Safety tests and antinutrient analyses of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaf.
West BJ, Tani H, Palu AK, Tolson CB, Jensen CJ.

Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) leaves have a documented history of food use. However, previous safety and antinutrient studies are absent. The current investigation was conducted to assess the utility of noni leaves as food. RESULTS: No evidence of toxicity or differences in weight gain were observed in acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity tests of ethanol–water (1:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts of noni leaves in mice at doses of 2000, 200, and 20 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. Acute systemic anaphylaxis tests of the ethanol–water (4:1 v/v) and hot-water extracts were negative. Further, leaf proteins were readily digested in simulated gastric fluid. Tannic acid concentrations in frozen and dried leaf were 1.6 and 25.8 g kg−1, respectively. Phytic acid was not detected in the raw leaf (<1g>